Constriction field adopts theories and principles which are a century old, so is the usage of cement. There is little change that happened in the construction practices in over the past few decades. The following are the few areas where a lot of R&D required:
1. Reduction of usage of water for concreting and it's curing.
2. Recycling of building rubble and waste
3. Substitute for cheaper aggregates without compromise on strength
4. Ways and means of reducing construction costs
5. Building management systems
6. Building automation systems
7. Affordable retrofitting and repairing of building elements
8. New building materials using wastes and byproducts
9. High strength concretes which can be produced economically resulting in lesser usage of reinforced steel
10. More IT into constriction industry.
11. More construction mechanization and automation resulting in lesser labor force
12. Plastics into structural engineering